Today is October 21, 2017 / /

The Torah Learning Library of Yeshivat Chovevei Torah

Rain, Rain Go Away?

by Rabbi Haggai Resnikoff (Posted on September 7, 2016)
Topics: Moadim/Holidays, Sukkot

Print Friendly, PDF & Email

This article is part of Torat Chovevei, a Community Learning Program led by Yeshivat Chovevei Torah with the support of the Covenant Foundation. The goal of the program is to connect communities to YCT through the medium of Torah learning. All topics discussed weave relevant contemporary issues together with Torah and non-Torah sources in monthly home-based learning groups (chaburot). These groups are guided by Rabbi Haggai Resnikoff, Rebbe and Director of Community Learning at YCT. For further information about Torat Chovevei, and how your community can get involved, please contact Rabbi Resnikoff at hresnikoff@yctorah.org.

The thought came to me when I began this daf that an important theme has dropped out of Sukkot the way we celebrate it: the theme of water. At the time of Chazal, and even more so in the time of the Second Temple, Sukkot was largely about doing rituals and praying for a rainy winter, a crucial need in an agricultural world. That theme has almost disappeared today. However, we have a crisis of rain and water swiftly approaching us as well. Because of population growth, pollution, and other causes, the amount of potable water per capita is rapidly decreasing in the world and the entire globe will face water shortages in the next hundred years. Is this a theme for us to focus on in our Tefillah? If so, when and how?

Aarhus University reports:

Our NEW REPORT RAISES CONCERN ABOUT ELECTRICITY AND WATER
Water is used around the world for the production of electricity, but new research results show that there will not be enough water in the world to meet demand by 2040 if the energy and power situation does not improve before then.
2014.07.29 | WINNIE AXELSEN
Two new reports that focus on the global electricity water nexus have just been published. Three years of research show that by the year 2040 there will not be enough water in the world to quench the thirst of the world population and keep the current energy and power solutions going if we continue doing what we are doing today. It is a clash of competing necessities, between drinking water and energy demand. Behind the research is a group of researchers from Aarhus University in Denmark, Vermont Law School and CNA Corporation in the US.
In most countries, electricity is the biggest source of water consumption because the power plants need cooling cycles in order to function. The only energy systems that do not require cooling cycles are wind and solar systems, and therefore one of the primary recommendations issued by these researchers is to replace old power systems with more sustainable wind and solar systems.
The research has also yielded the surprising finding that most power systems do not even register how much water is being used to keep the systems going.
By 2020 the water issue affects 30-40% of the world
“It’s a huge problem that the electricity sector do not even realise how much water they actually consume. And together with the fact that we do not have unlimited water resources, it could lead to a serious crisis if nobody acts on it soon”, says Professor Benjamin Sovacool from Aarhus University.
Combining the new research results with projections about water shortage and the world population, it shows that by 2020 many areas of the world will no longer have access to clean drinking water. In fact, the results predict that by 2020 about 30-40% of the world will have water scarcity, and according to the researchers, climate change can make this even worse.
“This means that we’ll have to decide where we spend our water in the future. Do we want to spend it on keeping the power plants going or as drinking water? We don’t have enough water to do both”, says Professor Benjamin Sovacool.
How to solve the problem?
In the reports, the researchers emphasise six general recommendations for decision-makers to follow in order to stop this development and handle the crisis around the world:
• Improve energy efficiency
• Better research on alternative cooling cycles
• Registering how much water power plants use
• Massive investments in wind energy
• Massive investments in solar energy
• Abandon fossil fuel facilities in all water stressed places (which means half the planet)
Close up on France, the US, China and India
The team of researchers conducted their research focusing on four different case studies in France, the United States, China and India respectively. Rather than reviewing the situation on a national level, the team narrowed in and focused on specific utilities and energy suppliers. The first step was identifying the current energy needs, and then the researchers made projections as far as 2040, and most of the results were surprising. All four case studies project that it will be impossible to continue to produce electricity in this way and meet the water demand by 2040.

The Guardian reports:

Why fresh water shortages will cause the next great global crisis
Robin McKie, science editor
Saturday 7 March 2015 19.05 EST Last modified on Thursday 12 March 201513.36 EDT

Water is the driving force of all nature, Leonardo da Vinci claimed. Unfortunately for our planet, supplies are now running dry – at an alarming rate. The world’s population continues to soar but that rise in numbers has not been matched by an accompanying increase in supplies of fresh water.
The consequences are proving to be profound. Across the globe, reports reveal huge areas in crisis today as reservoirs and aquifers dry up. More than a billion individuals – one in seven people on the planet – now lack access to safe drinking water.
Last week in the Brazilian city of São Paulo, home to 20 million people, and once known as the City of Drizzle,drought got so bad that residents began drilling through basement floors and car parks to try to reach groundwater. City officials warned last week that rationing of supplies was likely soon. Citizens might have access to water for only two days a week, they added.
In California, officials have revealed that the state has entered its fourth year of drought with January this year becoming the driest since meteorological records began. At the same time, per capita water use has continued to rise.
In the Middle East, swaths of countryside have been reduced to desert because of overuse of water. Iran is one of the most severely affected. Heavy overconsumption, coupled with poor rainfall, have ravaged its water resources and devastated its agricultural output. Similarly, the United Arab Emirates is now investing in desalination plants and waste water treatment units because it lacks fresh water. As crown prince General Sheikh Mohammed bin Zayed al-Nahyan admitted: “For us, water is [now] more important than oil.”
The global nature of the crisis is underlined in similar reports from other regions. In south Asia, for example, there have been massive losses of groundwater, which has been pumped up with reckless lack of control over the past decade. About 600 million people live on the 2,000 sq km area that extends from easternPakistan, across the hot dry plains of northern India and into Bangladesh, and the land is the most intensely irrigated in the world. Up to 75% of farmers rely on pumped groundwater to water their crops and water use is intensifying – at the same time that satellite images shows supplies are shrinking alarmingly.
The nature of the problem is revealed by US Geological Survey figures, which show that the total amount of fresh water on Earth comes to about 10.6m cubic km. Combined into a single droplet, this would produce a sphere with a diameter of about 272 km. However, 99% of that sphere would be made up of groundwater, much of which is not accessible. By contrast, the total volume from lakes and rivers, humanity’s main source of fresh water, produces a sphere that is a mere 56 km in diameter. That little blue droplet sustains most of the people on Earth – and it is under increasing assault as the planet heats up.
Changing precipitation and melting snow and ice are already altering hydrological systems in many regions. Glaciers continue to shrink worldwide, affecting villages and towns downstream. The result, says the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change, is that the fraction of global population experiencing water scarcity is destined to increase throughout the 21st century. More and more, people and nations will have to compete for resources. An international dispute between Egypt and Ethiopia over the latter’s plans to dam the Nile has only recently been resolved. In future, far more serious conflicts are likely to erupt as the planet dries up.Even in high latitudes, the one region on Earth where rainfall is likely to intensify in coming years, climate change will still reduce water quality and pose risks due to a number of factors: rising temperatures; increased levels of sediments, nutrients, and pollutants triggered by heavy rainfall; and disruption of treatment facilities during floods. The world faces a water crisis that will touch every part of the globe, a point that has been stressed by Jean Chrétien, former Canadian prime minister and co-chair of the InterAction Council. “The future political impact of water scarcity may be devastating,” he said. “Using water the way we have in the past simply will not sustain humanity in future.”

Questions:

  1. As middle class, American Jews, we are unlikely to face real water shortages. The main effects of the water crisis we are likely to feel are rising prices for water and electricity. Should it have further relevance for us? What?
  2. Is it appropriate to express concern for “political” issues like the global water crisis in a religious context? Is that what religion is for? What would be the point?
  3. Where in our religious practice might we find space to address the crisis described above? Tefillah? Other rituals? Shabbos? Holidays?

Mishna Rosh HaShana 1:1

בארבעה פרקים העולם נידון בפסח על התבואה בעצרת על פירות האילן בראש השנה כל באי העולם עוברין לפניו כבני מרון שנאמר (תהלים ל”ג) היוצר יחד לבם המבין אל כל מעשיהם ובחג נידונין על המים:
The world is judged at four periods. On Pesach for grain, on Shavuot for the fruits of the tree, on Rosh HaShana all who come in the world pass before him like soldiers (sheep?). As it says, “God who fashions the hearts of them all, who discerns all their doings.” And on Sukkot they are judged on water.

Questions:

  1. When the Mishna says, “העולם נדון” does that refer to the Jews of the world or literally to the whole world?
  2. Does נדונים על המים specifically refer to rainfall? Can we see it in any larger context?
  3. What is the connection between Sukkot and water? What about Sukkot and judgment? How does our practice reflect this connection?

Bereshit Raba, ch. 13

אמר ר’ שמעון בן יוחי ג’ דברים שקולים זה בזה ואילו הן ארץ ואדם ומטר, אמר ר’ לוי בר חייתה ושלשתם מן שלשה אותיות ללמדך שאם אין ארץ אין מטר ואם אין מטר אין ארץ ואם אין שניהם אין אדם. אמר ר’ הושעיה קשה היא גבורת גשמים ששקולה כנגד כל מעשה בראשית מה טע’ עושה גדולות עד אין חקר (איוב ה ט) במה בנותן מטר על פני ארץ ושולח מים על פני חוצות (שם שם /איוב ה’/ י), ר’ אחא מייתי לה מן הכא עושה ארץ בכוחו וגו’ (ירמיה י יב) לקול תתו המון מים בשמים וגו’ (שם שם /ירמיהו י’/ יג) ואין קול אלא גשמים היך מה דאת אמר תהום אל תהום קורא לקול צנוריך (תהלים מב ח) … ר’ חייא בר בא אמר גדולה מתחיית המתים שתחיית המתים לאדם וזו לאדם ולבהמה, שתחיית המתים לישראל וזו לישראל ולאומות. גוי אחד שאל את ר’ יהושע אמר לו אתם יש לכם מועדות ולנו יש מועדות, בשעה שאתם שמחים אין אנו שמחים, ובשעה שאנו שמחים אין אתם שמחים, ואימתי אנו ואתם שמחים, בירידת גשמים, מה טעם לבשו כרים הצאן (שם שם /תהלים ס”ה/) מה כת’ אחריו הריעו לי”י כל הארץ (שם /תהלים/ סו א) כהנים ולוים וישראלים אין כת’ אלא כל הארץ.
Rabbi Shimon Bar Yochai said, “Three things are equal to one another. They are: land, humanity, and rain.” Rabbi Levi Bar Chayta said, “And the three of them have three letters to teach you that if there is no land, there is no rain and if there is no rain, there is no land and if there is not both of them, there is no humanity.” Rabbi Hoshaia said, “the power of rain is so strong that it is compared to all of creation. What is the reason? ‘Who performs great deeds which cannot be fathomed. How? ‘who gives rain to the earth , and sends water over the fields.’” Rabbi Acha learns it thus, ‘God made the earth by God’s might…When God’s voice resounds with the great mass of water in the heavens…’ and the word “voice” refers to rain as it says, ‘Deep calls to deep at the voice of Your cataracts.’… Rabbi Chiya Bar Ba says, “It is greater than the resurrection of the dead. For the resurrection of the dead is for people, but this is for people and animals. Resurrection of the dead is for Jews and this is for Jews and non-Jews.” A non-Jew asked Rabbi Yehoshua. He said to him, “You have holidays and we have holidays. When you are rejoicing, we aren’t rejoicing. And when we’re rejoicing, you are not rejoicing. When are both of us rejoicing?” (He answered) “When the rain falls. What is the reason? ‘the medadowsare clothed with flocks…’ What is written next? ‘Make a joyful noise to God, all the earth.’ It doesn’t say ‘Priests, Levites, and Israelites,’ it says ‘all the earth.’”

Questions:

  1. What can we make of the fact that water in this Midrash is presented as a universal value? Can it give us any perspective on the Mishna?
  2. “Rain is greater than תחיית המתים because תחיית המתים is for Jews and rain is for Jews and non-Jews.” Can this affect our כוונות when we pray for rain and by extension, for water?

B. Talmud, Tractate Rosh Hashana 16a

תניא… ומפני מה אמרה תורה נסכו מים בחג – אמר הקדוש ברוך הוא: נסכו לפני מים בחג, כדי שיתברכו לכם גשמי שנה
It was taught…Why did the Torah say to pour out water on Sukkot? God said: Pour out water before me on Sukkot in order that the rains of the year will be blessed for you.

Rambam, Laws of Daily and Additional Offerings, ch. 10.

כל שבעת ימי החג מנסכין את המים על גבי המזבח, ודבר זה הלכה למשה מסיני, ועם ניסוך היין של תמיד של שחר היה מנסך המים לבדו.

…ובקרן דרומית מערבית היה מנסך למעלה מחצי המזבח והכל יורד לשיתין כמו שביארנו, כיצד היו עושין, צלוחית של זהב מחזקת שלשה לוגין היה ממלא אותה מן השילוח, הגיעו לשער המים תקעו והריעו ותקעו, עלה לכבש ופנה לשמאלו ונותן המים מן הצלוחית לתוך הספל שהיה שם, ושני ספלים של כסף היו שם, מערבי היה בו המים, ומזרחי היה בו היין של נסך, והיו מנוקבין כמין שני חוטמין דקין, ושל מים היה נקב שלו דק משל יין כדי שיכלה המים עם היין כאחד.

 

All seven days of Sukkot, they pour out the water on the altar. And this is a law to Moses from Sinai. And (at the same time as) the wine libation of the daily morning offering, they would pour out the water by itself.

…And he (the Kohen) would pour the water on the South Western corner, above the halfway line of the altar and it all goes down to the drainage canal as we explained. What would they do? They would fill a gold vessel holding three logs of water (just under a liter) from the Shiloah. When they reached the Water Gate, they would blow a tekiah and a teruah and a tekiah. He would go up the ramp (of the altar) and turn left and he would pour the water from the vessel into a bucket that was there. There were two silver buckets there. The Western one had the water in it and the Eastern one had the wine for libation in it. And they had holes like two small nostrils. And the one for water had smaller holes than the one for wine so that the water and the wine would finish flowing at the same time.

 

Questions:

  1. The Talmud seems to suggest that ניסוך המים is the primary water ritual of Sukkot. Considering the Rambam, it is clear that this ritual is deeply connected with the Temple and the altar. Lacking a temple and an altar, what rituals remain to us that might reference water?

Biblical Encyclopedia, vol. 5, p. 1039

תשרי הוא המועד שבו מתחיל האדם ודווקה באקלימה של ארץ ישראל, לצפות לגשמי החורף ולבקש שנה גשומה. במקרא לא מצינו אלא רמז עקיף אחד לתפילת הגשם בסוכות, וגם אמור באחד הכתובים המאוחרים (זכ’ יד, טז-יח). אף על פי כן קשה מאוד להעלות על הדעת שבימי בית ראשון לא התפללו על הגשמים בחג החל בתשרי, ולא יצויר שהמעשים הקשורים בבקשה על הגשמים שהיו נוהגים בבית שני (אמירת הושע נא, ניסוך המים, שמחת בית השואבה) חודשו כולם, יש מאין, בתקופה שלאחר המקרא. אדרבה, בקשת הגשמים היא צורך גדול, ואפשר לראות בה יסוד ראשון במעלה וקדום בזמן של עבודת הא-לקים בכל אתר ואתר, וכל שכן בארץ ישראל במועד שלפני בוא הגשמים, היינו בתשרי…
Tishre is the time in which people start expecting the winter rains, specifically in the climate of the Land of Israel, and to ask for a rainy year. In the Bible, we only find one indirect hint of the prayer for rain in Sukkot, and this is in one of the later books (Zech 14:16-18). Despite this, it is very hard to imagine that in the days of the First Temple, they didn’t pray for rain during the holidays beginning in Tishre. And it is impossible to think that the actions that are connected to the request for rain which were practiced during the time of the Second Temple (saying save us, pouring water, the festival of drawing water) were instituted from nothing in the post-Biblical era. On the contrary, the request for rain is an important need, and one may see in it a first class and early basis in the worship of God in every place. And this is all the more so the case in the Land of Israel in the time before the coming of rain—i.e. in Tishre.

Mishna, Tractate Ta’anit, 1:1

מאימתי מזכירין גבורת גשמים רבי אליעזר אומר מיום טוב הראשון של חג רבי יהושע אומר מיום טוב האחרון של חג
When do we begin to mention the power of rain? Rabbi Eliezer says, from the first day of Sukkot. Rabbi Yehoshua says from the last day of Sukkot.

Talmud Yerushalmi, Tractate Ta’anit, 1:1 (63c)

טעמיה דר’ אליעזר על ידי שארבעת מינין הללו גדילים על המים לפיכן הן באין פרקליטין למים. ד”א בשעה שהעבד משמש את רבו כל צורכו הוא תובע פרסו ממנו אמר לו ר’ יהושע והלא משעה שהעבד משמש את רבו כל צורכו ורוח רבו נוחה הימינו הוא תובע פרנסתו ממנו ד”א אין העבד תובע פרסו אלא סמוך לפרסו. תני ר’ ליעזר או’ משעת נטילת לולב ר’ יהושע אומר משעת הניחו.
The reason for Rabbi Eliezer is that those four species grow by the water. Therefore, they are representatives of water. Another idea: at the time that the servant serves his master all his needs, that’s when he demands his salary from him. Rabbi Yehoshua said to him, behold, from the moment that the servant serves his master in all his needs and the mood of his master is pleasant from this, he demands his salary from him. Another idea: the servant only demands his salary when it is payday. It is taught, Rabbi ‘Liezer says, from the moment of taking the lulav. Rabbi Yehoshua says, from the moment of putting it down.

B. Talmud, Tractate Sukkah 37b

אמר רבי יוחנן: מוליך ומביא – למי שהארבע רוחות שלו, מעלה ומוריד – למי שהשמים והארץ שלו. במערבא מתנו הכי, אמר רבי חמא בר עוקבא אמר רבי יוסי ברבי חנינא: מוליך ומביא – כדי לעצור רוחות רעות, מעלה ומוריד – כדי לעצור טללים רעים.
Rabbi Yochanan said, “You waive it back and forth to the one to whom all the winds belong, up and down to the one to whom the heavens and the earth belong.” In the west (Israel) they taught thus, “Rabbi Chama Bar Ukva said in the name of Rabbi Yose Berebi Chanina: You waive it back and forth in order to prevent evil winds, up and down to prevent evil dews.

Questions:

  1. What are our כוונות when we do נטילת לולב today? Do they include considerations of water? Does this seem like a reasonable time to daven for water? What about הושענות?
  2. It appears that the position of רבי חמא בר עוקבא is an attempt to guarantee a good rainy season by warding away “evil winds” and “evil dews”. Does this seem uncomfortably “magical”? Isn’t this a problem is all rituals? Do we need a specific ritual for water? Couldn’t we just concentrate harder in ברכת השנים?
  3. All of the rituals of סוכות we’ve mentioned apply only to סוכות. If water really is a primary theme of Sukkot, why do we wait until שמיני עצרת to say תפילת גשם?

Shulchan Aruch, Orach Chayim, Laws of Prayer, ch. 114.

מתחילין לומר בברכה שניה: משיב הרוח ומוריד הגשם, בתפלת מוסף של יום טוב האחרון של חג, ואין פוסקין עד תפלת מוסף של יום טוב הראשון של פסח.
We begin to say, “who returns the winds and brings down the rain” in the second blessing in the additional prayer of the last day of Yom Tov of Sukkot. And we don’t stop until the additional prayer of the first day of Pesach.

Mishnah Berurah, ch. 114, subsect. b

בתפילת מוסף וכו’ – והיה ראוי להזכיר לרצות לפני הש”י מיו”ט הראשון של חג שנידונין בו על המים אלא לפי שהגשמים הם סימן קללה בחג הסוכות שא”א לישב בסוכה בשעת הגשם אין מזכירין הגשם עד עבור ז’ ימי ישיבה בסוכה
In the additional prayer etc.: And it was appropriate to mention it to appease God on the first day of Sukkot when we are judged on water. However, since rain is a sign of a curse on Sukkot because it is not possible to sit in the Sukkah when it rains, we do not mention rain until the seven days of sitting in the Sukkah are passed.

Questions:

  1. Based on the sources we saw at the beginning of the chapter, what argument could we make against the claim that גשמים הם סימן קללה בחג? What would be the counter-argument?

Prayer for Rain (Koren-Sacks Siddur)

זְכור אָב נִמְשַׁךְ אַחֲרֶיךָ כַּמַּיִם.בֵּרַכְתּו כְּעֵץ שָׁתוּל עַל פַּלְגֵי מַיִם.גְּנַנְתּו הִצַּלְתּו מֵאֵשׁ וּמִמַּיִם.דְּרַשְׁתּו בְּזָרְעו עַל כָּל מָיִם:בַּעֲבוּרו אַל תִּמְנַע מָיִם: זְכור הַנּולָד בִּבְשורַת יֻקַּח נָא מְעַט מַיִםוְשחְתָּ לְהורו לְשָׁחֲטו לִשְׁפּוךְ דָּמו כַּמַּיִםזִהֵר גַּם הוּא לִשְׁפּוךְ לֵב כַּמַּיִםחָפַר וּמָצָא בְּאֵרות מָיִם.בְּצִדְקו חון חַשְׁרַת מָיִם.זְכור טָעַן מַקְלו וְעָבַר יַרְדֵּן מַיִםיִחַד לֵב וְגָל אֶבֶן מִפִּי בְאֵר מַיִםכְּנֶאֱבַק לו שר בָּלוּל מֵאֵשׁ וּמִמַּיִםלָכֵן הִבְטַחְתּו הֱיות עִמּו בָּאֵשׁ וּבַמָּיִם.בַּעֲבוּרו אַל תִּמְנַע מָיִם.זְכור מָשׁוּי בְּתֵיבַת גּומֶא מִן הַמַּיִםנָמוּ דָלה דָלָה וְהִשְׁקָה צאן מַיִםסְגוּלֶיךָ עֵת צָמְאוּ לְמַּיִםעַל הַסֶּלַע הָךְ וַיֵּצְאוּ מָיִם.בְּצִדְקו חון חַשְׁרַת מָיִם. זְכור פְּקִיד שָׁתות טובֵל חָמֵשׁ טְבִילות בַּמַּיִםצועֶה וּמַרְחִיץ כַּפָּיו בְּקִדּוּשׁ מַיִםקורֵא וּמַזֶּה טָהֳרַת מַיִםרוּחַק מֵעַם פַּחַז כַּמָּיִם.בַּעֲבוּרו אַל תִּמְנַע מָיִם.
זְכור שְׁנֵים עָשר שְׁבָטִים שֶׁהֶעֱבַרְתָּ בְּגִזְרַת מַיִםשֶׁהִמְתַּקְתָּ לָמו מְרִירוּת מַיִםתּולְדותָם נִשְׁפַּךְ דָּמָם עָלֶיךָ כַּמַּיִםתֵּפֶן כִּי נַפְשֵׁנוּ אָפְפוּ מָיִם.בְּצִדְקָם חון חַשְׁרַת מָיִם:
Remember the Patriarch [Abraham]who followed You like water. You blessed him like a tree planted beside streams of water. You shielded him and rescued him from fire and water. You sought him because he sowed [righteousness] by all waters. For his sake do not withhold water.Remember [Isaac] whose birth was foretold when [Abraham said] “Let there be brought some water.” You told his father to offer him, so shed his blood like water. [Isaac], too, cared and poured out his soul like water. When he dug, he discovered wells of water. For his righteousness’ sake grant abundant water.Remember [Jacob] who carried his staff and crossed the Jordan’s water. With steadfast heart he rolled away the stone from the well of water. He wrestled with an angel composed of fire and water, So you promised to be with him through fire and water. For his sake do not withhold water.Remember [Moses] who in a reed basket Was drawn out of the water. They said: “He drew water for us and gave the flock water.” When your treasured people thirsted for water, He struck the rock and out gushed water. For his righteousness’ sake grant abundant water.Remember [Aaron], chief officer of the Temple,Who immersed five times in water. He went and washed his hands in the sanctifying water. He called out and sprinkled blood, Purifying the people as if with water. He kept apart from the people who were as unruly as water. For his sake do not withhold water.Remember the twelve tribes. You brought through the divided water, For whom you sweetened the bitterness of the water. For your sake their descendants’blood was spilled like water. Turn to us, for troubles engulf our souls like water. For their righteousness’ sake grant abundant water.

Questions:

  1. Although the two preliminary verses (which are not read in ארץ ישראל) mention rain and rainfall, the rest of the תפילה uses only the word מים. Is this significant? What additional meaning can we give to this תפילה?
  2. Is there room to reinterpret this תפילה as a prayer for water in general and not only rainfall? For the world and not only for the Jews?
  3. Is there any reason to say this תפילה on שמיני עצרת beyond the simple fact that it is considered to be an evil omen to have rain on Sukkot?

Bemidbar 29

וּבַחֹ֨דֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִ֜י בְּאֶחָ֣ד לַחֹ֗דֶשׁ מִֽקְרָא־קֹ֙דֶשׁ֙ יִהְיֶ֣ה לָכֶ֔ם כָּל־מְלֶ֥אכֶת עֲבֹדָ֖ה לֹ֣א תַעֲשׂ֑וּ י֥וֹם תְּרוּעָ֖ה יִהְיֶ֥ה לָכֶֽם: וַעֲשִׂיתֶ֨ם עֹלָ֜ה לְרֵ֤יחַ נִיחֹ֙חַ֙ לַֽיקֹוָ֔ק פַּ֧ר בֶּן־בָּקָ֛ר אֶחָ֖ד אַ֣יִל אֶחָ֑ד כְּבָשִׂ֧ים בְּנֵי־שָׁנָ֛ה שִׁבְעָ֖ה תְּמִימִֽם:וּמִנְחָתָ֔ם סֹ֖לֶת בְּלוּלָ֣ה בַשָּׁ֑מֶן שְׁלֹשָׁ֤ה עֶשְׂרֹנִים֙ לַפָּ֔ר שְׁנֵ֥י עֶשְׂרֹנִ֖ים לָאָֽיִל:וְעִשָּׂר֣וֹן אֶחָ֔ד לַכֶּ֖בֶשׂ הָאֶחָ֑ד לְשִׁבְעַ֖ת הַכְּבָשִֽׂים:וּשְׂעִיר־עִזִּ֥ים אֶחָ֖ד חַטָּ֑את לְכַפֵּ֖ר לֵיכֶֽם:מִלְּבַד֩ עֹלַ֨ת הַחֹ֜דֶשׁ וּמִנְחָתָ֗הּ וְעֹלַ֤ת הַתָּמִיד֙ וּמִנְחָתָ֔הּ וְנִסְכֵּיהֶ֖ם כְּמִשְׁפָּטָ֑ם לְרֵ֣יחַ נִיחֹ֔חַ אִשֶּׁ֖ה לַיקֹוָֽק:וּבֶעָשׂוֹר֩ לַחֹ֨דֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִ֜י הַזֶּ֗ה מִֽקְרָא־קֹ֙דֶשׁ֙ יִהְיֶ֣ה לָכֶ֔ם וְעִנִּיתֶ֖ם אֶת־נַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶ֑ם כָּל־מְלָאכָ֖ה לֹ֥א תַעֲשֽׂוּ:וְהִקְרַבְתֶּ֨ם עֹלָ֤ה לַֽיקֹוָק֙ רֵ֣יחַ נִיחֹ֔חַ פַּ֧ר בֶּן־בָּקָ֛ר אֶחָ֖ד אַ֣יִל אֶחָ֑ד כְּבָשִׂ֤ים בְּנֵֽי־שָׁנָה֙ שִׁבְעָ֔ה תְּמִימִ֖ם יִהְי֥וּ לָכֶֽם:וּמִנְחָתָ֔ם סֹ֖לֶת בְּלוּלָ֣ה בַשָּׁ֑מֶן שְׁלֹשָׁ֤ה עֶשְׂרֹנִים֙ לַפָּ֔ר שְׁנֵי֙ עֶשְׂרֹנִ֔ים לָאַ֖יִל הָאֶחָֽד:עִשָּׂרוֹן֙ עִשָּׂר֔וֹן לַכֶּ֖בֶשׂ הָאֶחָ֑ד לְשִׁבְעַ֖ת הַכְּבָשִֽׂים:שְׂעִיר־עִזִּ֥ים אֶחָ֖ד חַטָּ֑את מִלְּבַ֞ד חַטַּ֤את הַכִּפֻּרִים֙ וְעֹלַ֣ת הַתָּמִ֔יד וּמִנְחָתָ֖הּ וְנִסְכֵּיהֶֽם:וּבַחֲמִשָּׁה֩ עָשָׂ֨ר י֜וֹם לַחֹ֣דֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִ֗י מִֽקְרָא־קֹ֙דֶשׁ֙ יִהְיֶ֣ה לָכֶ֔ם כָּל־מְלֶ֥אכֶת עֲבֹדָ֖ה לֹ֣א תַעֲשׂ֑וּ וְחַגֹּתֶ֥ם חַ֛ג לַיקֹוָ֖ק שִׁבְעַ֥ת יָמִֽים:וְהִקְרַבְתֶּ֨ם עֹלָ֜ה אִשֵּׁ֨ה רֵ֤יחַ נִיחֹ֙חַ֙ לַֽיקֹוָ֔ק פָּרִ֧ים בְּנֵי־בָקָ֛ר שְׁלֹשָׁ֥ה עָשָׂ֖ר אֵילִ֣ם שְׁנָ֑יִם כְּבָשִׂ֧ים בְּנֵֽי־ שָׁנָ֛ה אַרְבָּעָ֥ה עָשָׂ֖ר תְּמִימִ֥ם יִהְיֽוּ:וּמִנְחָתָ֔ם סֹ֖לֶת בְּלוּלָ֣ה בַשָּׁ֑מֶן שְׁלֹשָׁ֨ה עֶשְׂרֹנִ֜ים לַפָּ֣ר הָֽאֶחָ֗ד לִשְׁלֹשָׁ֤ה עָשָׂר֙ פָּרִ֔ים שְׁנֵ֤י עֶשְׂרֹנִים֙ לָאַ֣יִל הָֽאֶחָ֔ד לִשְׁנֵ֖י הָאֵילִֽם:וְעִשָּׂרוֹן֙ עִשָּׂר֔וֹן לַכֶּ֖בֶשׂ הָאֶחָ֑ד לְאַרְבָּעָ֥ה עָשָׂ֖ר כְּבָשִֽׂים:וּשְׂעִיר־עִזִּ֥ים אֶחָ֖ד חַטָּ֑את מִלְּבַד֙ עֹלַ֣ת הַתָּמִ֔יד מִנְחָתָ֖הּ וְנִסְכָּֽהּ: וּבַיּ֣וֹם הַשֵּׁנִ֗י פָּרִ֧ים בְּנֵי־בָקָ֛ר שְׁנֵ֥ים עָשָׂ֖ר אֵילִ֣ם שְׁנָ֑יִם כְּבָשִׂ֧ים בְּנֵי־שָׁנָ֛ה אַרְבָּעָ֥ה עָשָׂ֖ר תְּמִימִֽם:וּמִנְחָתָ֣ם וְנִסְכֵּיהֶ֡ם לַ֠פָּרִים לָאֵילִ֧ם וְלַכְּבָשִׂ֛ים בְּמִסְפָּרָ֖ם כַּמִּשְׁפָּֽט:וּשְׂעִיר־עִזִּ֥ים אֶחָ֖ד חַטָּ֑את מִלְּבַד֙ עֹלַ֣ת הַתָּמִ֔יד וּמִנְחָתָ֖הּ וְנִסְכֵּיהֶֽם: סוּבַיּ֧וֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁ֛י פָּרִ֥ים שְׁתֵּי־עָשָׂ֖ר אֵילִ֣ם שְׁנָ֑יִם כְּבָשִׂ֧ים בְּנֵי־שָׁנָ֛ה אַרְבָּעָ֥ה עָשָׂ֖ר תְּמִימִֽם:וּמִנְחָתָ֣ם וְנִסְכֵּיהֶ֡ם לַ֠פָּרִים לָאֵילִ֧ם וְלַכְּבָשִׂ֛ים בְּמִסְפָּרָ֖ם כַּמִּשְׁפָּֽט:וּשְׂעִ֥יר חַטָּ֖את אֶחָ֑ד מִלְּבַד֙ עֹלַ֣ת הַתָּמִ֔יד וּמִנְחָתָ֖הּ וְנִסְכָּֽהּ:וּבַיּ֧וֹם הָרְבִיעִ֛י פָּרִ֥ים עֲשָׂרָ֖ה אֵילִ֣ם שְׁנָ֑יִם כְּבָשִׂ֧ים בְּנֵֽי־שָׁנָ֛ה אַרְבָּעָ֥ה עָשָׂ֖ר תְּמִימִֽם:מִנְחָתָ֣ם וְנִסְכֵּיהֶ֡ם לַ֠פָּרִים לָאֵילִ֧ם וְלַכְּבָשִׂ֛ים בְּמִסְפָּרָ֖ם כַּמִּשְׁפָּֽט:וּשְׂעִיר־עִזִּ֥ים אֶחָ֖ד חַטָּ֑את מִלְּבַד֙ עֹלַ֣ת הַתָּמִ֔יד מִנְחָתָ֖הּ וְנִסְכָּֽהּ:וּבַיּ֧וֹם הַחֲמִישִׁ֛י פָּרִ֥ים תִּשְׁעָ֖ה אֵילִ֣ם שְׁנָ֑יִם כְּבָשִׂ֧ים בְּנֵֽי־שָׁנָ֛ה אַרְבָּעָ֥ה עָשָׂ֖ר תְּמִימִֽם:וּמִנְחָתָ֣ם וְנִסְכֵּיהֶ֡ם לַ֠פָּרִים לָאֵילִ֧ם וְלַכְּבָשִׂ֛ים בְּמִסְפָּרָ֖ם כַּמִּשְׁפָּֽט:וּשְׂעִ֥יר חַטָּ֖את אֶחָ֑ד מִלְּבַד֙ עֹלַ֣ת הַתָּמִ֔יד וּמִנְחָתָ֖הּ וְנִסְכָּֽהּ:וּבַיּ֧וֹם הַשִּׁשִּׁ֛י פָּרִ֥ים שְׁמֹנָ֖ה אֵילִ֣ם שְׁנָ֑יִם כְּבָשִׂ֧ים בְּנֵי־שָׁנָ֛ה אַרְבָּעָ֥ה עָשָׂ֖ר תְּמִימִֽם:וּמִנְחָתָ֣ם וְנִסְכֵּיהֶ֡ם לַ֠פָּרִים לָאֵילִ֧ם וְלַכְּבָשִׂ֛ים בְּמִסְפָּרָ֖ם כַּמִּשְׁפָּֽט:וּשְׂעִ֥יר חַטָּ֖את אֶחָ֑ד מִלְּבַד֙ עֹלַ֣ת הַתָּמִ֔יד מִנְחָתָ֖הּ וּנְסָכֶֽיהָ:וּבַיּ֧וֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִ֛י פָּרִ֥ים שִׁבְעָ֖ה אֵילִ֣ם שְׁנָ֑יִם כְּבָשִׂ֧ים בְּנֵי־שָׁנָ֛ה אַרְבָּעָ֥ה עָשָׂ֖ר תְּמִימִֽם:וּמִנְחָתָ֣ם וְנִסְכֵּהֶ֡ם לַ֠פָּרִים לָאֵילִ֧ם וְלַכְּבָשִׂ֛ים בְּמִסְפָּרָ֖ם כְּמִשְׁפָּטָֽם:וּשְׂעִ֥יר חַטָּ֖את אֶחָ֑ד מִלְּבַד֙ עֹלַ֣ת הַתָּמִ֔יד מִנְחָתָ֖הּ וְנִסְכָּֽהּ:בַּיּוֹם֙ הַשְּׁמִינִ֔י עֲצֶ֖רֶת תִּהְיֶ֣ה לָכֶ֑ם כָּל־מְלֶ֥אכֶת עֲבֹדָ֖ה לֹ֥א תַעֲשֽׂוּ:וְהִקְרַבְתֶּ֨ם עֹלָ֜ה אִשֵּׁ֨ה רֵ֤יחַ נִיחֹ֙חַ֙ לַֽיקֹוָ֔ק פַּ֥ר אֶחָ֖ד אַ֣יִל אֶחָ֑ד כְּבָשִׂ֧ים בְּנֵי־שָׁנָ֛ה שִׁבְעָ֖ה תְּמִימִֽם:מִנְחָתָ֣ם וְנִסְכֵּיהֶ֗ם לַפָּ֨ר לָאַ֧יִל וְלַכְּבָשִׂ֛ים בְּמִסְפָּרָ֖ם כַּמִּשְׁפָּֽט:וּשְׂעִ֥יר חַטָּ֖את אֶחָ֑ד מִלְּבַד֙ עֹלַ֣ת הַתָּמִ֔יד וּמִנְחָתָ֖הּ וְנִסְכָּֽהּ:And in the seventh month, on the first day of the month, ye shall have a holy convocation: ye shall do no manner of servile work; it is a day of blowing the horn unto you. And ye shall prepare a burnt-offering for a sweet savour unto the LORD: one young bullock, one ram, seven he-lambs of the first year without blemish; and their meal-offering, fine flour mingled with oil, three tenth parts for the bullock, two tenth part for the ram, and one tenth part for every lamb of the seven lambs; and one he-goat for a sin-offering, to make atonement for you; beside the burnt-offering of the new moon, and the meal-offering thereof, and the continual burnt-offering and the meal-offering thereof, and their drink-offerings, according unto their ordinance, for a sweet savour, an offering made by fire unto the LORD. And on the tenth day of this seventh month ye shall have a holy convocation; and ye shall afflict your souls; ye shall do no manner of work; but ye shall present a burnt-offering unto the LORD for a sweet savour: one young bullock, one ram, seven he-lambs of the first year; they shall be unto you without blemish; and their meal-offering, fine flour mingled with oil, three tenth parts for the bullock, two tenth parts for the one ram, a several tenth part for every lamb of the seven lambs; one he-goat for a sin-offering; beside the sin-offering of atonement, and the continual burnt-offering, and the meal-offering thereof, and their drink-offerings. {S} And on the fifteenth day of the seventh month ye shall have a holy convocation: ye shall do no manner of servile work, and ye shall keep a feast unto the LORD seven days; and ye shall present a burnt-offering, an offering made by fire, of a sweet savour unto the LORD: thirteen young bullocks, two rams, fourteen he-lambs of the first year; they shall be without blemish; and their meal-offering, fine flour mingled with oil, three tenth parts for every bullock of the thirteen bullocks, two tenth parts for each ram of the two rams, and a several tenth part for every lamb of the fourteen lambs; and one he-goat for a sin-offering beside the continual burnt-offering, the meal-offering thereof, and the drink-offering thereof. And on the second day ye shall present twelve young bullocks, two rams, fourteen he-lambs of the first year without blemish; and their meal-offering and their drink-offerings for the bullocks, for the rams, and for the lambs, according to their number, after the ordinance; and one he-goat for a sin-offering; beside the continual burnt-offering, and the meal-offering thereof, and their drink-offerings. And on the third day eleven bullocks, two rams, fourteen he-lambs of the first year without blemish; and their meal-offering and their drink-offerings for the bullocks, for the rams, and for the lambs, according to their number, after the ordinance; and one he-goat for a sin-offering; beside the continual burnt-offering, and the meal-offering thereof, and the drink-offering thereof. And on the fourth day ten bullocks, two rams, fourteen he-lambs of the first year without blemish; their meal-offering and their drink-offerings for the bullocks, for the rams, and for the lambs, according to their number, after the ordinance; and one he-goat for a sin-offering; beside the continual burnt-offering, the meal-offering thereof, and the drink-offering thereof. And on the fifth day nine bullocks, two rams, fourteen he-lambs of the first year without blemish; and their meal-offering and their drink-offerings for the bullocks, for the rams, and for the lambs, according to their number, after the ordinance; and one he-goat for a sin-offering; beside the continual burnt-offering, and the meal-offering thereof, and the drink-offering thereof. And on the sixth day eight bullocks, two rams, fourteen he-lambs of the first year without blemish; and their meal-offering and their drink-offerings for the bullocks, for the rams, and for the lambs, according to their number, after the ordinance; and one he-goat for a sin-offering; beside the continual burnt-offering, the meal-offering thereof, and the drink-offerings thereof. And on the seventh day seven bullocks, two rams, fourteen he-lambs of the first year without blemish; and their meal-offering and their drink-offerings for the bullocks, for the rams, and for the lambs, according to their number, after the ordinance; and one he-goat for a sin-offering; beside the continual burnt-offering, the meal-offering thereof, and the drink-offering thereof. On the eighth day ye shall have a solemn assembly: ye shall do no manner of servile work; but ye shall present a burnt-offering, an offering made by fire, of a sweet savour unto the LORD: one bullock, one ram, seven he-lambs of the first year without blemish; their meal-offering and their drink-offerings for the bullock, for the ram, and for the lambs, shall be according to their number, after the ordinance; and one he-goat for a sin-offering; beside the continual burnt-offering, and the meal-offering thereof, and the drink-offering thereof.

Questions:

  1. Based on the sacrifices that are offered, does Shemini Atzeret more resemble Succot or Rosh HaShana and Yom Kippur? What does this imply about the meaning of the day? Can this add relevance to saying תפילת גשם particularly on Shemini Atzeret?